Main Line Charging

EV Glossary

Term or AcronymDefinition
AC (Alternating Current)Alternating Current – An electric
current that reverses direction at
regular intervals.
AER (All-Electric Range)The range any EV is able to reach solely using electricity.
AEV (All-Electric Vehicle)Also called BEV (Battery-Electric
Vehicle). A vehicle that runs on an
electric motor only, using on-board
batteries that you can plug in and
Amp (A)Unit of electric current.
Battery Management SystemAn electronic system within the Vehicle that manages and protects the battery.
BEV (Battery Electric vehicle)Battery Electric Vehicle- A 100%
battery-powered Electric Vehicle.
BMS (Battery Management System)Any electronic system that manages a
rechargeable battery by monitoring and reporting on its state.
CHAdeMO PlugThe more common trade name for a
quick charging system allows for
charging capacities up to 50 kW at
appropriate public charging stations.
The following manufacturers offer
electric cars which are compatible
with… the CHAdeMO plug:
BD Otomotive, Citroën, Honda, Kia,
Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Peugeot,
Subaru, Tesla (with adaptor), & Toyota.
Charge Circuit Interrupting Device (CCID)A safety protection component within
an EVSE  (Electric Vehicle Supply
Equipment) that reduces the chance of a person getting an electric shock.
ChargingRefilling an electric car’s battery with
Charging PointThe location where electric vehicles can be plugged in and charged, whether at home, work or in a public accessible
Charging StationAn element of infrastructure that safely supplies electric energy for the
recharging of electric vehicles, also
known as an EVSE (Electric Vehicle
Supply Equipment).
Combined Charging SystemAnother method to quickly charge
electric vehicles through a special
electric connection. CCSs often use the
SAE J1772, which is the North
American electrical standard for Electric Vehicles.
ConnectorA device attached to the cable from an EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply
Equipment) that connects to an electric vehicle allowing it to charge.
DC (Direct Current)Direct Current – An electric current of
constant direction and is the type of
power that comes from a battery.
DC Fast ChargingThe fastest (high powered) way to
charge electric vehicles quickly with an electrical output ranging from
50kW – 350kw. This will fully charge
an average electric car in 30 to 40
(Extended-Range Electric Vehicle)
An AEV/BEV that has a range extender (usually a small internal combustion
engine) to increase range.
(Electric Vehicle)
A broad category that includes all vehicles that are fully powered by Electricity or an Electric Motor.
(Electric Vehicle Battery)
A battery that is used to power the
movement of a BEV.
(Electric Vehicle Driver)
Anyone who drives an EV.
(Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment)
Infrastructure designed to supply
power to EVs. EVSE can charge a wide variety of EVs including BEVs & PHEVs.
(Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle)
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle – A vehicle
that uses a fuel cell, usually hydrogen-based, to generate electricity that runs an on-board motor.
(Green House Gas)
A gas that contributes to the
greenhouse effect by absorbing
infrared radiation. Examples include carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons.
(Hybrid Electric Vehicles)
An HEV utilizes a dual system of
electric propulsion and an internal
combustion engine.
 A vehicle with an electric motor and a
full-sized internal combustion engine
that uses regenerative braking to
charge the motor.
(Internal Combustion Engine)
An ICE is powered by combustible fuel, often petroleum or natural gas
products. Regular gasoline powered
(Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle)
All vehicles that are powered by Fossil Fuels are ICEVs.
IEC 62196Also known as the Mennekes, it is a
type of connectors that is used to
charge Electric Vehicles in Europe.
IncentivesMany governments offer incentives to
encourage buyers to choose an electric car. Incentives for EVs can include
grants towards the purchase price, free
parking, zero road tax, low company car tax and exemption from city emissions and congestion charges.
kWUnit of power, 1000 Watts equals
kWhUnit of power sustained for 1 hour; i.e. 1000w for 1 hour equals 1kWh.
Level 1 ChargingOn-site circuit/outlet delivers
110-120V of alternating current.
Typically, a “cord set” is used to connect to a 120V wall outlet at 15, 20 or 30
amps, which usually comes with the
EV. The output to the vehicle is AC
current. Cord sets provide a way of
charging while at home or away on a
trip where a quicker-charging Level 2
unit is not available. The low power
flow leads to long recharge times. Due to this long recharge time, a large
majority of electric vehicle owners will
install and use a higher power Level 2
Level 2 ChargingCharging at 208-240V, using an
installed outlet. Takes 4-5 hours to
fully charge an EV with a 100-mile
Level 3 ChargingAlso known as DC charging, the fastest method of charging for all EVs. It can
fully charge an EV battery in about half an hour.
Level 3 ChargingAlso known as DC charging. Charging at 480 volts with a direct-current (DC)
plug. Level three chargers are much
less common due to high cost and
much higher power requirements.
(Lithium-ion battery)
This is the current standard in electric
vehicle batteries, offering good energy density, power, and fast charging
ability. The life of a lithium-ion battery
is estimated to be the same as the life
of the car (eight to ten years). Of
course, ‘end of life’ here does not mean a car or its batteries won’t work – after 10 years a lithium-ion battery is expected to be 80% still efficient, so they will still be usable – replacement will be a
choice, not a requirement.
Molten salt batteryA type of battery that utilizes molten
salts as an electrolyte.
(miles per gallon equivalent)
MPGe is determined by seeing how far a vehicle can travel on 33.7kWh of
energy, the equivalent energy in one
gallon of gas. Used for comparing fuel efficiency of EVs and ICEVs.
(miles per kilowatt-hour)
The estimated miles an EV can go on
one kilowatt-hour of battery. A more
relevant measurement for EV owners
as they plan their driving and charging.
(Neighborhood Electric Vehicle)
BEV’s that are limited to streets with
lower speed limits, typically around
45mph. NEV’s are all-electric and can
be recharged using a standard outlet.
(Nickel Metal Hydride)
A less reliable rechargeable battery.
Off-Peak ChargingCharging your EV during the less busy
times of day for a lower cost.
(Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles)
Is a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle that has battery pack that can be recharged by plugging a charging cable into an
external electric power source or
internally by its on-board internal
combustion engine-powered generator.
Pure ElectricA vehicle powered solely by electric
motors using power provided by
on-board batteries.
RangeThe distance you can travel on pure
electric power before the battery
requires a recharge.
Range AnxietyThe worry that an EV will run out of
battery power before you arrive at your destination.
Regenerative BrakingAn energy recovery system used in
most electric vehicles that can help
charge the battery while the car is slowing down. Typically the electric motor
acts as the generator, so power can
flow both ways between it and the
battery. ‘Regen’ helps extend the range, while the process also helps slow the
vehicle in a similar way to engine
braking in an ICE powered car.
Type 1 Plug
The CCS plug is an enhanced version of the type 2 plug, with two additional
power contacts for the purposes of
quick charging, and supports AC & DC
charging power levels (alternating and direct current charging power levels) of up to 170 kW. In practice, the value is
usually around 50 kW.
Type 2 Plug
The type 1 plug is a single-phase plug
that allows for charging power levels of up to 7.4 kW (240 V, 32 A).
SAE J1772The standard North American electrical connection for Electric Vehicles.
Generally, works with Level 1 and Level 2 systems.
Tesla Supercharger A super-fast charging system that can provide up to 120 kW directly to the
car’s battery. Currently these systems
are only available to Teslas.
TorqueThe twisting force that causes rotation. In cars, torque rules and is the major
factor in a car’s accelerative ability.
Petrol and diesel engines deliver torque over a curve as RPM increases, meaning they have peak power at a given
RPM. Electric motors, on the other
hand, deliver maximum torque from
zero revs, meaning acceleration from
standstill can be phenomenal.
Utility Rate
Utility rates vary according to high- and low-peak use hours. Thus the rate
charged to an EV customer is based not only on the total electricity used, but
also upon the time of day the energy
was drawn.
Volt (V)Volt (V) is the unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage),
& electromotive force. Can be thought
of as electrical pressure  
V2G (Vehicle-to-grid)A system that allows Electric Vehicles
to communicate with the power grid to manage the flow of electricity in either direction.
VRLA battery (valve-regulated lead-acid battery)A rechargeable lead-acid battery.
ZEVZero Emission Vehicle – A vehicle that
emits no tailpipe pollutants from the
onboard source of power. Harmful pollutants to health and the environment include particulates (soot), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and
various oxides of nitrogen. A popular
example of a ZEV is a Tesla Model S.